Closing Argument

The “Closing Argument” is a crucial phase in a legal trial, particularly in adversarial systems like those used in the United States and many other countries. It provides attorneys with the opportunity to make their final persuasive statements to the judge or jury before a verdict is reached. In this comprehensive explanation, we will delve into the definition of a Closing Argument, its objectives, structure, and significance in the legal process.

Definition of Closing Argument

A Closing Argument, often referred to as a closing statement or summation, is the concluding presentation by an attorney in a trial. It occurs after all evidence has been presented and allows each side’s attorney to summarize their case, highlight key points, and make a persuasive argument for their client’s position. The purpose of the Closing Argument is to persuade the judge or jury to view the case in a certain way and reach a favorable verdict.

Objectives of a Closing Argument

The Closing Argument serves several critical objectives:

a. Summarization: It provides an opportunity to summarize the evidence presented during the trial, reminding the judge or jury of crucial facts and testimony.

b. Persuasion: Attorneys aim to persuade the judge or jury to adopt their client’s perspective and argument. This often involves making emotional or logical appeals.

c. Highlighting Key Points: Attorneys emphasize key points that support their case and undermine the opposing side’s arguments.

d. Response to Opposing Arguments: Attorneys address and refute the opposing side’s arguments and evidence presented during the trial.

Structure of a Closing Argument

The structure of a Closing Argument typically follows a pattern:

a. Introduction: Attorneys begin by introducing themselves, their client, and providing an overview of their argument. They may also express gratitude to the judge or jury for their time and attention.

b. Statement of the Case: Attorneys briefly outline the facts of the case, including the charges or issues being considered.

c. Summarization of Evidence: Attorneys review the evidence presented during the trial, highlighting key witness testimonies, documents, or exhibits that support their case.

d. Key Arguments: Attorneys present the core arguments that support their client’s position. They may use storytelling, emotional appeals, or logical reasoning to make their case compelling.

e. Refutation of Opposing Arguments: Attorneys address any counterarguments or evidence presented by the opposing side and offer reasons why they should not be accepted.

f. Conclusion: Attorneys conclude their Closing Argument by summarizing their key points, reinforcing their client’s innocence or liability, and urging the judge or jury to render a specific verdict.

Significance in the Legal Process

The Closing Argument is a critical stage in the legal process for several reasons:

a. Final Impression: It is the last opportunity for attorneys to leave a lasting impression on the judge or jury before deliberations begin, making it crucial for influencing the verdict.

b. Clarification: Attorneys can clarify complex legal issues or conflicting evidence, helping the judge or jury make informed decisions.

c. Emotional Appeal: The Closing Argument allows attorneys to connect with the judge or jury on an emotional level, making the case more relatable and persuasive.

d. Decision-Making: It directly impacts the decision-making process, as judges and jurors often base their verdicts on the arguments presented during the Closing Argument.


In conclusion, the Closing Argument is a pivotal phase in a legal trial, providing attorneys with the opportunity to summarize their case, persuade the judge or jury, and leave a lasting impression. Its structured format and strategic use of evidence, argumentation, and persuasion make it a crucial element of the legal process. The Closing Argument plays a significant role in determining the outcome of a case, making it an essential skill for attorneys and a key moment for justice to prevail.

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